Computer Science CBSE CLASS-XII
Unit I: Computational Thinking and Programming – 2
• Functions: types of function (built-in functions, functions defined in module, user defined
functions), creating user defined function, arguments and parameters, default parameters,
positional parameters, function returning value(s), flow of execution, scope of a variable (global
scope, local scope)
• Introduction to files, types of files (Text file, Binary file, CSV file), relative and absolute paths
• Text file: opening a text file, text file open modes (r, r+, w, w+, a, a+), closing a text file, opening a
file using with clause, writing/appending data to a text file using write() and writelines(), reading
from a text file using read(), readline() and readlines(), seek and tell methods, manipulation of data
in a text file
• Binary file: basic operations on a binary file: open using file open modes (rb, rb+, wb, wb+, ab, ab+),
close a binary file, import pickle module, dump() and load() method, read, write/create, search,
append and update operations in a binary file
• CSV file: import csv module, open / close csv file, write into a csv file using csv.writerow() and read
from a csv file using csv.reader( )
• Python libraries: creating python libraries
• Recursion: simple programs with recursion: sum of first n natural numbers, factorial, fibonacci
• Idea of efficiency: number of comparisons in Best, Worst and Average case for linear search
• Data Structure: Stack, operations on stack (push & pop), implementation of stack using list.
Introduction to queue, operations on queue (enqueue, dequeue, is empty, peek, is full),
implementation of queue using list.
Unit II: Computer Networks
● Evolution of networking: introduction to computer networks, evolution of networking (ARPANET,
● Data communication terminologies: concept of communication, components of data
communication (sender, receiver, message, communication media, protocols), measuring capacity
of communication media (bandwidth, data transfer rate), IP address, switching techniques (Circuit
switching, Packet switching)
● Transmission media: Wired communication media (Twisted pair cable, Co-axial cable, Fiber-optic
cable), Wireless media (Radio waves, Micro waves, Infrared waves)
● Network devices (Modem, Ethernet card, RJ45, Repeater, Hub, Switch, Router, Gateway, WIFI
● Network topologies and Network types: types of networks (PAN, LAN, MAN, WAN), networking
topologies (Bus, Star, Tree)
● Network protocol: HTTP, FTP, PPP, SMTP, TCP/IP, POP3, HTTPS, TELNET, VoIP, wireless/mobile
communication protocol such as GSM, GPRS and WLL
● Mobile telecommunication technologies: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G
● Introduction to web services: WWW, Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), Extensible Markup
Language (XML), domain names, URL, website, web browser, web servers, web hosting
Unit III: Database Management
• Database concepts: introduction to database concepts and its need
• Relational data model: relation, attribute, tuple, domain, degree, cardinality, keys (candidate key,
primary key, alternate key, foreign key)
• Structured Query Language: introduction, Data Definition Language and Data Manipulation
Language, data type (char(n), varchar(n), int, float, date), constraints (not null, unique, primary
key), create database, use database, show databases, drop database, show tables, create table,
describe table, alter table (add and remove an attribute, add and remove primary key), drop table,
insert, delete, select, operators (mathematical, relational and logical), aliasing, distinct clause,
where clause, in, between, order by, meaning of null, is null, is not null, like, update command,
delete command, aggregate functions (max, min, avg, sum, count), group by, having clause, joins:
cartesian product on two tables, equi-join and natural join
• Interface of python with an SQL database: connecting SQL with Python, performing insert, update,
delete queries using cursor, display data by using fetchone(), fetchall(), rowcount, creating
database connectivity applications
CBSE Suggested Practical List:
● Write a recursive code to find the factorial of a natural number.
● Write a recursive code to find the sum of all elements of a list.
● Write a recursive code to compute the nth Fibonacci number.
● Read a text file line by line and display each word separated by a #.
● Read a text file and display the number of vowels/consonants/uppercase/lowercase characters
in the file.
● Remove all the lines that contain the character ‘a’ in a file and write it to another file.
● Create a binary file with name and roll number. Search for a given roll number and display the
name, if not found display appropriate message.
● Create a binary file with roll number, name and marks. Input a roll number and update the marks.
● Write a random number generator that generates random numbers between 1 and 6 (simulates
● Write a Python program to implement a stack and queue using list.
● Create a CSV file by entering user-id and password, read and search the password for given userid.
● Create a student table and insert data. Implement the following SQL commands on the student
o ALTER table to add new attributes / modify data type / drop attribute
o UPDATE table to modify data
o ORDER By to display data in ascending / descending order
o DELETE to remove tuple(s)
o GROUP BY and find the min, max, sum, count and average
● Similar exercise may be framed for other cases.
● Integrate SQL with Python by importing suitable module
The aim of the class project is to create something that is tangible and useful using Python file handling/
Python-SQL connectivity. This should be done in groups of two to three students and should be started
by students at least 6 months before the submission deadline. The aim here is to find a real world problem
that is worthwhile to solve.
Students are encouraged to visit local businesses and ask them about the problems that they are facing.
For example, if a business is finding it hard to create invoices for filing GST claims, then students can do
a project that takes the raw data (list of transactions), groups the transactions by category, accounts for
the GST tax rates, and creates invoices in the appropriate format. Students can be extremely creative
here. They can use a wide variety of Python libraries to create user friendly applications such as games,
software for their school, software for their disabled fellow students, and mobile applications, of course
to do some of these projects, some additional learning is required; this should be encouraged. Students
should know how to teach themselves.