Informatics Practices CLASS-XII

Informatics Practices CLASS-XII

Unit 1: Data Handling using Pandas and Data Visualization
Data Handling using Pandas -I
Introduction to Python libraries- Pandas, Matplotlib.
Data structures in Pandas – Series and data frames.
Series: Creation of series from ndarray, dictionary, scalar value; mathematical operations; series attributes,
head and tail functions; selection, indexing and slicing.
Data Frames: creation of data frames from dictionary of series, list of dictionaries, text/CSV files, display,
iteration. Operations on rows and columns: add add ( insert /append) , select, delete (drop column and row),
rename, Head and Tail functions, indexing using labels, Boolean indexing; joining, merging and
concatenation of data frames.
Importing/Exporting Data between CSV files and Data Frames. (for practicals only)
Data handling using Pandas – II
Descriptive Statistics: max, min, count, sum, mean, median, mode, quartile, Standard deviation, variance.
Data Frame operations: Aggregation, group by, Sorting, Deleting and Renaming Index, Pivoting.
Handling missing values – dropping and filling.
Importing/Exporting Data between MySQL database and Pandas.
Data Visualization : Purpose of plotting, drawing and saving of plots using Matplotlib (line plot, bar graph,
histogram, pie chart, frequency polygon, box plot and scatter plot).
Customizing plots: color, style (dashed, dotted), width; adding label, title, and legend in plots.

Unit 2: Database Query using SQL
Math functions: POWER (), ROUND (), MOD ().
Text functions: UCASE ()/UPPER (), LCASE ()/LOWER (), MID ()/SUBSTRING ()/SUBSTR (), LENGTH (),
LEFT (), RIGHT (), INSTR (), LTRIM (), RTRIM (), TRIM ().
Date Functions: NOW (), DATE (), MONTH (), MONTHNAME (), YEAR (), DAY (), DAYNAME ().
Aggregate Functions: MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT (); using COUNT (*).
Querying and manipulating data using Group by, Having, Order by.
Operations on Relations – Union, Intersection, Minus, Cartesian Product, JOIN (Cartesian Join, Equi Join,
Natural Join)

Unit 3: Introduction to Computer Networks
Introduction to networks, Types of network: LAN, MAN, WAN.
Network Devices: modem, hub, switch, repeater, router, gateway
Network Topologies: Star, Bus, Tree, Mesh.
Introduction to Internet: URL, WWW and its applications- Web, email, Chat, VoIP.
Website: Introduction, difference between a website and webpage, static vs dynamic web page, web server
and hosting of a website.
Web Browsers: Introduction, commonly used browsers, browser settings, add-ons and plug-ins, cookies.

Unit 4: Societal Impacts
Digital footprint, net and communication etiquettes, data protection, intellectual property rights (IPR),
plagiarism, licensing and copyright, free and open source software (FOSS), cybercrime and cyber laws,
hacking, phishing, cyber bullying, overview of Indian IT Act.
E-waste: hazards and management.
Awareness about health concerns related to the usage of technology

  1. Project Work
    The aim of the class project is to create tangible and useful IT applications. The learner may identify a realworld problem by exploring the environment. e.g. Students can visit shops/business places, communities or
    other organizations in their localities and enquire about the functioning of the organization, and how data are
    generated, stored and managed. The learner can take data stored in a csv or database file and analyze it
    using Python libraries and generate appropriate charts to visualize. If an organization is maintaining data
    offline, then the learner should create a database using MySQL and store the data in tables. Data can be
    imported in Pandas for analysis and visualization.
    Learners can use Python libraries of their choice to develop software for their school or any other social good.
    Learners should be sensitized to avoid plagiarism and violation of copyright issues while working on projects.
    Teachers should take necessary measures for this. Any resources (data, image etc.) used in the project must
    be suitably referenced.
    The project can be done individually or in groups of 2 to 3 students. The project should be started by students
    at least 6 months before the submission deadline.

CSBSE Suggested Practical List
Data Handling

  1. Create a pandas series from a dictionary of values and an ndarray
  2. Given a Series, print all the elements that are above the 75th percentile.
  3. Create a Data Frame quarterly sales where each row contains the item category, item name, and
    expenditure. Group the rows by the category, and print the total expenditure per category.
  4. Create a data frame based on ecommerce data and generate descriptive statistics (mean, median,
    mode, quartile, and variance)
  5. Create a data frame for examination result and display row labels, column labels data types of each
    column and the dimensions
  6. Filter out rows based on different criteria such as duplicate rows..
  7. Find the sum of each column, or find the column with the lowest mean.
  8. Locate the 3 largest values in a data frame.
  9. Subtract the mean of a row from each element of the row in a Data Frame.
  10. Replace all negative values in a data frame with a 0.
  11. Replace all missing values in a data frame with a 999.
  12. Importing and exporting data between pandas and CSV file
  13. Importing and exporting data between pandas and MySQL database
  14. Given the school result data, analyse the performance of the students on different parameters, e.g
    subject wise or class wise.
  15. For the Data frames created above, analyze and plot appropriate charts with title and legend.
  16. Take data of your interest from an open source (e.g., aggregate and summarize it. Then
    plot it using different plotting functions of the Matplotlib library.
    Data Management
  17. Create a student table with the student id, name, and marks as attributes where the student id is the
    primary key.
  18. Insert the details of a new student in the above table.
  19. Delete the details of a particular student in the above table.
  20. Use the select command to get the details of the students with marks more than 80.
  21. Create a new table (order ID, customer Name, and order Date) by joining two tables (order ID,
    customer ID, and order Date) and (customer ID, customer Name, contact Name, country).
  22. Create a foreign key in one of the two tables mentioned above
  23. Find the min, max, sum, and average of the marks in a student marks table.
  24. Find the total number of customers from each country in the table (customer ID, customer Name,
    country) using group by.
  25. Create a new table (name, date of birth) by joining two tables (student id, name) and (student id,
    date of birth).
  26. Write a SQL query to order the (student ID, marks) table in descending order of the marks.
    Introduction to Computer Networks
  27. Download, install and configure browser.
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