Characteristics of research
In this tutorial you will learn different characteristics of research which are given below.
• It means research is free of biases, prejudices and subjectivity.
• Researchers usually take utmost precautions that results are not affected by their own presence, behaviour and attitude.
The following Approaches can be adopted to ensure objectivity during research process:
• Keeping complete records of observations and data analyses in a form that other researchers can understand and evaluate.
• Using uniform, consistent procedures in all phases of data collection.
• Avoiding bias: Bias from external influences, personal beliefs, observers perspectives and human expectations can distort all data.
• It is the use of best source of information and the best procedures in the research.
• The excessive reliance on secondary data when the option of primary data is available entails the risk of reducing the credibility of the research.
• It refers to the degree to which research findings can be applied to a large population.
• The sample considered is the representative of the whole population so the findings should also be applicable to the whole population.
• Validity is based on accuracy of research. Higher accuracy tends to high validity.
• The extent to which a test or study measures what it is supposed to measure.
• Validity generally stands for accuracy of procedures, research instruments, tests, etc.
• Without validity, research goes in the wrong direction.
There are two types of validity.
1. Internal Validity
• If the effect of the dependent variable is only due to the independent variable(s) then internal validity is achieved.
• Internal validity is the extent to which you can be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship established in a study cannot be explained by other factors.
• Truth in the study
• Internal validity is called as credibility.
• It refers to the extent to which research findings study can be applied (generalized) to other situations, groups or events.
• Truth in real world
• External validity is called as Generalization.
• The Degree to which research an investigation produces consistent and stable results.
• If any research produces similar results each time, then it is undertaken with similar population in the given context and with similar procedures, it is said to be a reliable research.
• Research should be follow a sequence of steps.
• Systematic approach should be follow to undertake any research work
• Accuracy measures whether the research tools have been selected in the best possible manner and research procedures suit the research problem or not.
• Research findings are accurate by choosing best data collection tools, research processes, best appropriate sample.
• Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
• It is based on real-life experiences, direct experiences or observation by the researcher.
• It implies that research is related basically to one or more aspects of a real situation
• A good research is logical, implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning. Induction and deduction are of great value in research, which have been discussed under types of research.
• If we receives same results with different condition, different method, then our research is replicable.
• The results of the research to be verified by replicating the study and thereby building a sound basis for decisions.
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