Qualitative research UGC NET Paper 1

Qualitative research

Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviour.
Qualitative research is basically inductive in nature and has a very different structure. The researcher starts with a tentative idea or question and these questions become more specific with progress in research.
Thus, in qualitative research, one starts with observation and ends with a theoretical position or stance. Thus, it is inductive in nature, i.e., the research moves from specific to theory.
It follows post positivism approach of research.
It’s concern with process rather than simply with outcomes.
Also called flexible research/ unstructured research.
In qualitative research, less role of review of literature.
Since, it uses non-probability sampling technique to collect sample data, it has less sample size.
Research is conducted on natural settings.
It is used for exploration and initial understanding development.
The important methods and approaches used in qualitative research have been discussed below.

1. Ethnography

2. Phenomenology

3. In-depth interview

4. Focus group

5. Narrative research

6. Case study research

7. Grounded theory

1. Ethnography:

The ethnography is one of the major types of qualitative research methods used in social sciences, especially in anthropology. It is the process of studying and describing a culture (a culture is the shared attitudes, values, norms, practises, language and material things of a group of people).

2. Phenomenology:

It is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher attempts to understand how individuals experience a phenomenon. What was the phenomenon and how people experienced it.
It is the study of a particular phenomenon through interviews of people who have experienced it to find out the similarities between their experiences.
For example, interviewing 10 infected corona people and asking them to describe their experiences. Net exam

3. In-depth interview:

It is a personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time. Though it is systematically planned, it may have unstructured elements as well.
The researcher prepares questions in advance to make sure that only the most important questions are asked to the participant.
If the researcher is well experienced asking the right questions can help him/her collect meaningful data.
The interview can last anywhere between twenty minutes to half an hour.

4. Focus group:

A focus group usually includes 6–10 participants who are usually subject matter experts.
A moderator, usually an experienced person, is assigned to a focus group to facilitate the discussion. The role of a moderator is to probe the participants by asking the correct research questions so as to collect research related information.
This method is very useful when it comes to market research on new products and testing new concepts.

5. Narrative research:

This method focuses on spoken or written words or visual representations by people.
This model is helpful in understanding the ways in which people represent them and their experiences to a wider audience.
It is a kind of cohesive story telling method.
All kinds of biography and autography comes under Narrative research.

6. Case study research:

Case studies are in-depth examinations of people or groups of people.
Case studies are time consuming and may be quite costly.
Case study method is used in the areas like education sector, social sciences, management, philosophical and psychological and similar.
This research method has evolved over the years as one of the most valuable qualitative research methods.
This method involves a deep digging into the developments and collects data.

7. Grounded theory:

It is a qualitative approach to generate and develop a theory from data that the researcher collects.
It develops a theory from ground base(zero)
It is involved in the collection, interpretation, and analysis of data. The grounded theory model uses the analysed data to develop different theories regarding the topic of research.
Role play, simulation and diary methods are also used in qualitative research.

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