✰ Systematic collection and evaluation of data to describe, explain, and thereby understand actions or events that occurred sometime in the past.
✰ Historical research seek to find out the causes of past events.
✰ The causal-comparative or ex-post facto research may also seek to find out the causes of events, but while the causal-comparative deals with the present events, historical research finds out the causes of past events only.
✰ Examples is evolution of modern education system in India, etc.
✰ It usually focuses on the historical aspect of an issue of interest or problem.