In this tutorial, we will discuss Research variables in research.
✰ Anything capable of assuming different values is known as variable.
Types of variables in research
1. Dependent variables in research:
✰ The variable upon which the effects of changes are observed is called the dependent variable, which is observed but not manipulated by the researcher.
✰ Dependent variables are also called the response or outcome variables.
2. Independent variables in research:
✰ Independent variables are the cause of Dependent variable.
✰ It is the variable manipulated or changed by the researcher in an experiment and then observe the effect of independent variable on dependent variable.
✰ Independent variables are also known as the experimental, manipulated, or treatment variables.
3. Intervening variables in research:
✰ These are also termed as mediator variables. They establish link between IV(Independent Variable) and DV(Dependent Variable). These are variables through which one variable affects another variable. These are helpful to understand the process.
✰ For example, tissue damage is an intervening variable in smoking and lung cancer relationship. We can use arrows (which mean causes or affects) and draw the relationship that includes an intervening variable like the one given below.
4. Extraneous variable in research:
✰ Independent variables that are not related to the purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable are termed as extraneous variables.
✰ Extraneous variable must be controlled so that the researcher can be sure that the cause of dependent variable is only because of independent variable.
✰ One important characteristic of a good research design is to minimise the influence or effect of extraneous variables on dependent variable.
5. Confounded variable in research:
✰ If an extraneous variable is the real reason for an outcome instead of independent variables, then it is also known as confounding variable because it has confused or confounded the relationship we are interested in.
✰ When the dependent variable is not free from the influence of Extraneous variable(s), the relationship between the dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable(s).
✰ The extraneous variable that researcher forget to considered. But this variable affects the dependent variable.